With the ever-growing popularity of Bluetooth devices many people find themselves wondering how they actually work. Picture a phone connected to a wireless speaker, which will be equipped with Bluetooth hardware and software. The hardware could be an antenna-equipped chip that sends and receives signals on a certain frequency. The software installed on each device will be able to read those signals and resend them to other devices, in a way that they can be understood.
So going back to the phone and wireless speaker, the phone will know how to send audio files and packets of information, in a way that the speaker will be able to understand. For instance, you could use the phone to change the level of the volume on the speaker or even change the track.
Once any two devices have Bluetooth hardware and software installed on them, one of the devices will be discovered by the other device automatically. Basically, this means that your phone would discover the speaker, which will show up under a Bluetooth section in your phone. This is possible, because the speaker sends out a signal containing a little bit of information to alert your phone of its presence. After your phone knows there is a readable device in the area you can tell the phone to connect the two devices via personal area network.
After this step is completed for the first time the two devices will always be able to read each other based on a unique address coded in the signals. It does not matter if there are any other signals that come in on the same wavelength your two devices will always be able to send and receive information to each other correctly. In order to prevent massive amount of data from interrupting communication between the two devices Bluetooth signals only has a limited range. Pretty much what this means is that your speaker will always know what you are telling it to do.